FGM is a harmful practice and there are no known health benefits for girls and women. Indeed, there are many negative consequences for the health of those who undergo FMG. The consequences of FGM can vary and this often depends on the type (see above) of FGM that a girl/woman has experienced. For example, those who have experienced type 3 (infibulation) may experience more physical consequences than those who have undergone type 1, though this is not always the case. In addition to this, short and long term complications can differ.
Short term complications can include: pain; excessive bleeding; shock; fever and infections whilst longer term women can experience: urinary problems; menstrual problems; complications in childbirth; scarring and sexual problems (such as painful intercourse or decreased satisfaction). Mental health problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder are also common.